GMO safety studies and funding sources
View our infographic about GMO safety studies and funding sources.

This is a partial list of independently-funded studies on genetically engineered crops that we have collected as part of the GENetic Engineering Risk Atlas (GENERA). About 1/3 of the studies about risks of genetic engineering are from independent funding sources.

  1. Powell M, Wheatley AO, Omoruyi F, Asemota HN, Williams NP, Tennant PF. 2009. Comparative effects of dietary administered transgenic and conventional papaya on selected intestinal parameters in rat models. Transgenic research 19(3):511-8.
  2. Batista R, Saibo N, Lourenço T, Oliveira MM. 2008. Microarray analyses reveal that plant mutagenesis may induce more transcriptomic changes than transgene insertion. PNAS 105(9):3640-5. (full text)
  3. Böhme H, Rudloff E, Schöne F, Schumann W, Hüther L, Flachowsky G. 2007. Nutritional assessment of genetically modified rapeseed synthesizing high amounts of mid-chain fatty acids including production responses of growing-finishing pigs. Archives of animal nutrition 61(4):308-16. 2007.
  4. Baudo MM, Lyons R, Powers S, Pastori GM, Edwards KJ, Holdsworth MJ, Shewry PR. 206. Transgenesis has less impact on the transcriptome of wheat grain than conventional breeding. Plant biotechnology journal 4(4):369-80.
  5. Brake DG, Thaler R, Evenson DP. 2004. Evaluation of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn on mouse testicular development by dual parameter flow cytometry. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 52(7):2097-2102.
  6. Brake DG, Evenson DP. 2004. A generational study of glyphosate tolerant soybeans on mouse fetal, postnatal, pubertal and adult testicular development. Food and chemical toxicology. 42(1):29–36.
  7. Atkinson HJ, Johnston KA, Robbins M. 2004. Prima facie evidence that a phytocystatin for transgenic plant resistance to nematodes is not a toxic risk in the human diet. Journal of Nutrition 134(2):431–434. (full text)
  8. Bakan B, Melcion D, Richard-Molard D, Cahagnier B. 2002. Fungal growth and Fusarium mycotoxin content in isogenic traditional maize and genetically modified maize grown in France and Spain. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 50(4): 728–731.
  9. Aulrich K, Böhme H, Daenicke R, Halle I, Flachowsky G. 2001. Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition 1st communication: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in poultry, pig and ruminant nutrition. Archiv für Tierernährung (Archives of Animal Nutrition) 54(3):183-195.
  10. Böhme H, Aulrich K, Daenicke R, Flachowsky G. 2001. Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition. 2nd communication: glufosinate tolerant sugar beets (roots and silage) and maize grains for ruminants and pigs. Archiv für Tierernährung (Archives of animal nutrition) 54(3):197-207.
  11. Arencibia A, Gentinetta E, Cuzzoni E, Castiglione S, Kohli A, Vain P, Leech M, Christou P, Sala F. 1998. Molecular analysis of the genome of transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants produced via particle bombardment or intact cell electroporation. Molecular breeding 4(2):99–109.
  12. Bub A, Möseneder J, Wenzel G, Rechkemmer G, Briviba K. 2008. Zeaxanthin is bioavailable from genetically modified zeaxanthin-rich potatoes. European journal of nutrition 47(2):99-103.
  13. Catchpole GS, Beckmann M, Enot DP, Mondhe M, Zywicki B, Taylor J, Hardy N, Smith A, King RD, Kell DB, Fiehn O, Draper J. 2005. Hierarchical metabolomics demonstrates substantial compositional similarity between genetically modified and conventional potato crops. PNAS 102(40):14458-62. (full text) The metabolite analysis and statistical work was funded by the Food Standards Agency (London) as part of its G02006 project.
  14. Chambers PA, Duggan PS, Heritage J, Forbes JM. 2000. The fate of antibiotic resistance marker genes in transgenic plant feed material fed to chickens. Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy 49(1):161–164. Novartis, formerly Ciba-Geigy, provided the genetically modified maize seeds used in this study. This work was funded by a grant from the Food Standards Agency.
  15. Chen ZL, Gu H, Li Y, Su Y, Wu P, Jiang Z, Ming X, Tian J, Pan N, Qu LJ. 2003. Safety assessment for genetically modified sweet pepper and tomato. Toxicology 188(2-3):297-307.
  16. Cheng KC, Beaulieu J, Iquira E, Belzile FJ, Fortin MG, Strömvik MV. 2008. Effect of transgenes on global gene expression in soybean is within the natural range of variation of conventional cultivars. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 56(9):3057-67.
  17. Chowdhury EH, Kuribara H, Hino A, Sultana P, Mikami O, Shimada N, Guruge KS, Saito M, Nakajima Y. 2003. Detection of corn intrinsic and DNA fragments and Cry1Ab protein in the gastrointestinal contents of pigs fed genetically modified corn Bt11. Journal of animal science 81(10):2546–2551. (full text)
  18. Chowdhury EH, Mikami O, Murata H, Sultana P, Shimada N, Yoshioka M, Guruge KS, Yamamoto S, Miyazaki S, Yamanaka N, Nakajima Y. 2004. Fate of maize intrinsic and recombinant genes in calves fed genetically modified maize Bt11. Journal of food protection 67(2):365-370.
  19. Chowdhury EH, Shimada N, Murata H, Mikami O, Sultana P, Miyazaki S, Yoshioka M, Yamanaka N, Hirai N, Nakajima Y.(2003). Detection of Cry1Ab protein in gastrointestinal contents but not visceral organs of genetically modified Bt11-fed calves. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2003 Mar;45(2):72-5.
  20. Chrenkova M, Sommer A, Ceresnakova Z, Nitrayova S, Prostredna M (2002) Nutritional evaluation of genetically modified maize corn performed on rats. Archives of Animal Nutrition-Archiv fur Tierernahrung 56:229-235 Institute of Animal Nutrition, Research Institute of Animal Production, Hlohovská 2, 949 92 Nitra, Slovak Republic. [email protected]
  21. Cleveland, Thomas E, Patrick F Dowd, Anne E Desjardins, Deepak Bhatnagar, Peter J Cotty (2003). United States Department of Agriculture – Agricultural Research Service research on pre-harvest prevention of mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi in US crops, Pest Management Science Volume 59, Issue 6-7 , Pages 629 – 642
  22. Daenicke R, Aulrich K, Flachowsky G. (1999). GMO in animal feedstuffs: nutritional properties of Bt-maize… Mais: Fachzeitschrift uber Forschung, Produktionstechnik, Verwertung und Okonomik 135-137 Institute of Animal Nutrition, Federal Agricultural Research Centre Braunschweig (FAL), Germany.
  23. Defernez M, Gunning YM, Parr AJ, Shepherd LV, Davies HV, Colquhoun IJ. (2004) J Agric Food Chem. 2004 Oct 6;52(20):6075-85. NMR and HPLC-UV profiling of potatoes with genetic modifications to metabolic pathways.
  24. Di Carli M, Villani ME, Renzone G, Nardi L, Pasquo A, Franconi R, Scaloni A, Benvenuto E, Desiderio A. (2008). Leaf Proteome Analysis of Transgenic Plants Expressing Antiviral Antibodies. J Proteome Res. 2008 Dec 19. [Epub ahead of print]  Systematic analysis of protein profiles to indentify any unexpected changes.
  25. Dowd, Patrick F (2000). Indirect Reduction of Ear Molds and Associated Mycotoxins in Bacillus thuringiensis Corn Under Controlled and Open Field Conditions: Utility and Limitations, Journal of Economic Entomology Volume 93, Issue 6 (December 2000) pp. 1669–1679 Bioactive Agents Research Unit, USDA-ARS, National Center for Agricultural Utilization Research, 1815 N. University Street, Peoria, IL 61604
  26. Dowd PF (2001) Biotic and abiotic factors limiting efficacy of Bt corn in indirectly reducing mycotoxin levels in commercial fields. J Econ Ent 94(5): 1067–1074.
  27. Dubouzet JG, Ishihara A, Matsuda F, Miyagawa H, Iwata H, Wakasa K.(2007) Integrated metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses of high-tryptophan rice expressing a mutant anthranilate synthase alpha subunit. J Exp Bot. 2007;58(12):3309-21. Epub 2007 Sep 4.
  28. Duggan, P.S., Chambers, P.A., Heritage, J., Forbes, J.M. (2002). Survival of free DNA encoding antibiotic resistance from transgenic maize and the transformation activity of DNA in ovine saliva, ovine rumen fluid and silage effluent. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 191, 71–77.
  29. Enot DP Manfred Beckmann, David Overy, and John Draper (2006) Predicting interpretability of metabolome models based on behavior, putative identity, and biological relevance of explanatory signals PNAS October 3, 2006 vol. 103(40): 14865–14870
  30. Ewen SWB, Pusztai A (1999). Effect of diets containing genetically modified potatoes expressing Galanthus nivalis lectin on rat small intestine. Lancet 354:1353-1354
  31. Finamore A, Roselli M, Britti S, Monastra G, Ambra R, Turrini A, Mengheri E.(2008) Intestinal and Peripheral Immune Response to MON810 Maize Ingestion in Weaning and Old Mice. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Nov 14. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 19007233
  32. Flachowsky G, Halle I, Aulrich K Long term feeding of Bt-corn–a ten-generation study with quails. Arch Anim Nutr. 2005 Dec;59(6):449-51. Institute of Animal Nutrition, Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Braunschweig, Germany. [email protected] also see (REVIEW) Flachowsky G, Chesson A, Aulrich K. Animal nutrition with feeds from genetically modified plants.
  33. Gregersen PL, Brinch-Pedersen H, Holm PB.(2005) A microarray-based comparative analysis of gene expression profiles during grain development in transgenic and wild type wheat. Transgenic Res. 2005 Dec;14(6):887-905.  
  34. Gizzarelli F, Corinti S, Barletta B, Iacovacci P, Brunetto B, Butteroni C, Afferni C, Onori R, Miraglia M, Panzini G, Di Felice G, Tinghino R. (2006) Evaluation of allergenicity of genetically modified soybean protein extract in a murine model of oral allergen-specific sensitization. Clin Exp Allergy. 2006 Feb;36(2):238-48.
  35. Halle, I., K. Aulrich and G. Flachowsky. 2004. Four generations of feeding of GMO-corn to breeder quail. (Futterung von gentechnisch verändertem Mais an Zuchtwachtein über vier Generationen). Proc. Soc. Nutr. Physiol. 13:124. Institute of Animal Nutrition, Federal Agricultural Research Centre (FAL), Braunschweig, Germany.
  36. Jenkins Helen, Nigel Hardy, Manfred Beckmann, John Draper, Aileen R. Smith, Janet Taylor, Oliver Fiehn, Royston Goodacre, Raoul J. Bino, Robert Hall, Joachim Kopka, Geoffrey A. Lane, B. Markus Lange, Jang R. Liu, Pedro Mendes, Basil J. Nikolau, Stephen G. Oliver, Norman W. Paton, Sue Rhee, Ute Roessner-Tunali, Kazuki Saito, Jørn Smedsgaard, Lloyd W. Sumner, Trevor Wang, Sean Walsh, Eve Syrkin Wurtele, Douglas B. Kell.(2004) A proposed framework for the description of plant metabolomics experiments and their results. Nature Biotechnology 22, 1601-1606. Under UK Food Safety Authority G02006: Metabolome technology for the profiling of GM and conventionally bred plant materials.
  37. Jia, Shirong, Feng Wang Lei Shi Qianhua Yuan Wuge Liu Yilong Liao Shuguang Li Wujun Jin Huipu Peng. 2007. Transgene flow to hybrid rice and its male-sterile lines Transgenic Res 16:491–501.
  38. Kılıc A, Akay M T. 2008. A three generation study with genetically modified Bt corn in rats: Biochemical and histopathological investigation Food and Chemical Toxicology 46:1164–1170.
  39. Kleter,Gijs A., Ad A. C. M. Peijnenburg, and Henk J. M. Aarts. 2005. Health considerations regarding horizontal transfer of microbial transgenes present in genetically modified crops. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 4 (2005) 326–352.
  40. Kleter GA, Bhula R, Bodnaruk K, Carazo E, Felsot AS, Harris CA, Katayama A, Kuiper HA, Racke KD, Rubin B, Shevah Y, Stephenson GR, Tanaka K, Unsworth J, Wauchope RD, Wong SS. 2007. Altered pesticide use on transgenic crops and the associated general impact from an environmental perspective. Pest Manag Sci 63(11):1107-15.
  41. Kleter GA, Peijnenburg AA. 2002. Screening of transgenic proteins expressed in transgenic food crops for the presence of short amino acid sequences identical to potential, IgE – binding linear epitopes of allergens. BMC Struct Biol 2:8.
  42. Kuiper HA, Hub P J M Noteborn, and ACM Peijnenburg. 1999 Adequacy of methods for testing the safety of genetically modified foods. Lancet 354:1315-6.
  43. Le Gall, Gwénaëlle, M. Susan DuPont, Fred A. Mellon, Adrienne L. Davis, Geoff J. Collins, Martine E. Verhoeyen, and Ian J. Colquhoun. 2003. Characterization and Content of Flavonoid Glycosides in Genetically Modified Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) Fruits J. Agric. Food Chem 51(9):2438 -2446.
  44. Le Gall G, Colquhoun IJ, Davis AL, Collins GJ, Verhoeyen ME. 2003. Metabolite profiling of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) using 1H NMR spectroscopy as a tool to detect potential unintended effects following a genetic modification. J Agric Food Chem 51(9):2447-56. Erratum in: 2004. J Agric Food Chem 52(10):3210.
  45. Lehesranta,Satu J., Howard V. Davies, Louise V.T. Shepherd, Naoise Nunan, Jim W. McNicol, Seppo Auriola, Kaisa M. Koistinen, Soile Suomalainen, Harri I. Kokko and Sirpa O. Kärenlampi. 2005. Comparison of Tuber Proteomes of Potato Varieties, Landraces, and Genetically Modified Lines. Plant Physiology 138:1690-1699.
  46. Li X, Huang K, He X, Zhu B, Liang Z, Li H, Luo Y. 2007. Comparison of nutritional quality between Chinese indica rice with sck and cry1Ac genes and its nontransgenic counterpart.J Food Sci. 2007 Aug;72(6):S420-4.
  47. Malatesta M, Boraldi F, Annovi G, Baldelli B, Battistelli S, Biggiogera M, Quaglino D. 2008. A long-term study on female mice fed on a genetically modified soybean: effects on liver ageing.Histochem Cell Biol.
  48. Brown NM and Setchell KDR. 2001. Animal models impacted by phytoestrogens in commercial chow: implications for pathways influenced by hormones. Laboratory Investigation 81:735–747. “All investigators should be vigilant to the phytoestrogen composition of commercial rodent diets because there is a history of potent biological effects in larger animals and humans from high circulating isoflavone concentrations”
  49. Thigpen JE. 2004. Selecting the appropriate rodent diet for endocrine disruptor research and testing studies. ILAR Journal. 45:401-416.
  50. Malatesta M, Tiberi C, Baldelli B, Battistelli S, Manuali E, Biggiogera M. 2005. Reversibility of hepatocyte nuclear modifications in mice fed on genetically modified soybean. Eur J Histochem 49(3):237-42.
  51. Momma K, Hashimoto W, Yoon HJ, Ozawa S, Fukuda Y, Kawai S, Takaiwa F, Utsumi S, Murata K. 2000. Safety assessment of rice genetically modified with soybean glycinin by feeding studies on rats. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 64:1881-6.
  52. Montero M, Coll A, Nadal A, Messeguer J, Pla M. Only half the transcriptomic differences between resistant genetically modified and conventional rice are associated with the transgene. Plant Biotechnology, 29 OCT 2010 DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7652.2010.00572.x.
  53. Peterson, Robert K.D. and Leslie M. Shama 2005. A Comparative Risk Assessment of Genetically Engineered, Mutagenic, and Conventional Wheat Production Systems Transgenic Research 14 (6) p859-875. This study was funded solely by a USDA Special Research Grant to the Institute for Biobased Products and by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station, Montana State University.
  54. Phipps RH, Deaville ER, Maddison BC (2003) Detection of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA in rumen fluid, duodenal digesta, milk, blood, and feces of lactating dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science 86:4070-4078. Funded by the U.K. Food Standards Agency.
  55. Ramessar, Koreen, Ariadna Peremarti Sonia Go´mez-Galera Shaista Naqvi Marian Moralejo Pilar Mun˜oz Teresa Capell Paul Christou 2007. Biosafety and risk assessment framework for selectable marker genes in transgenic crop plants: a case of the science not supporting the politics, Transgenic Res 16:261–280. This work was funded in part through the EU FP6 Pharma-Planta project.
  56. Rhee, G.S., Cho, D.H., Won, Y.H., Seok, J.H., Kim, S.S., Kwack, S.J., Lee, R.D., Chae, S.Y., Kim, J.W., Lee, B.M., Park, K.L., Choi, K.S., 2005. Multigeneration reproductive and developmental toxicity study of bar gene inserted into genetically modified potato on rats. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A 68, 2263–2276.
  57. Knudsen I, Poulsen M. 2007. Comparative safety testing of genetically modified foods in a 90-day rat feeding study design allowing the distinction between primary and secondary effects of the new genetic event. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 49(1):53-62.
  58. Lutz B, Wiedemann S, Einspanier R, Mayer J, Albrecht C. 2005. Degradation of Cry1Ab protein from genetically modified maize in the bovine gastrointestinal tract. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53:1453-1456. This addresses the digestibility of an insect detection protein which is believed to be an indicator of allergenicity risk. Risks of allergenicity are one of the major concerns raised by people who are worried about the safety of genetically engineered food
  59. Rang A, Linke B and Jansen B. 2005. Detection of RNA variants transcribed from the transgene in Roundup Ready soybean, European Food Research and Technology 220(3-4):438-443.
  60. Reuter T, Aulrich K, Berk A, Flachowsky G. 2002. Investigations on genetically modified maize (Bt-maize) in pig nutrition: chemical composition and nutritional evaluation. Arch Tierernahr 56(1):23-31.
  61. Rosati, A, Bogani P (2008) Characterisation of 3′ transgene insertion site and derived mRNAs in MON810 YieldGard® maize Plant Molecular Biology 67:271–281. Dr. G. Monastra provided seeds of MON810 and isogenic control maize. This work was supported by a grant from MIPAF (Ministero delle Politiche Agricole, Alimentari e Forestali), Project: ‘OGM in Agricoltura.
  62. Sakamoto, Y; Tada, Y; Fukumori, N; Tayama, K; Ando, H; Takahashi, H; Kubo, Y; Nagasawa, A; Yano, N; Yuzawa, K; Ogata, A; Kamimura, H. 2007. A 52-week feeding study of genetically modified soybeans in F344 rats Journal of the Food Hygiene Society of Japan, 48 (3): 41-50.
  63. Sakamoto Y, Tada Y, Fukumori N, Tayama K, Ando H, Takahashi H, Kubo Y, Nagasawa A, Yano N, Yuzawa K, Ogata A.A 2008. 104-week feeding study of genetically modified soybeans in F344 rats. Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi. 49(4):272-82.
  64. Shepherd LV, McNicol JW, Razzo R, Taylor MA, Davies HV (2006). Assessing the potential for unintended effects in genetically modified potatoes perturbed in metabolic and developmental processes. Targeted analysis of key nutrients and anti-nutrients. Transgenic Res. 15(4):409-25.
  65. Shimada N, Murata H, Mikami O, Yoshioka M, Guruge KS, Yamanaka N, Nakajima Y, Miyazaki S. 2006. Effects of feeding calves genetically modified corn bt11: a clinico-biochemical study.J Vet Med Sci. 2006 Oct;68(10):1113-5.
  66. Sinagawa-García SR, Rascón-Cruz Q, Valdez-Ortiz A, Medina-Godoy S, Escobar-Gutiérrez A, Paredes-López O. 2004. Safety assessment by in vitro digestibility and allergenicity of genetically modified maize with an amaranth 11S globulin. J Agric Food Chem. 2004 May 5;52(9):2709-14.
  67. Schrøder M, Poulsen M, Wilcks A, Kroghsbo S, Miller A, Frenzel T, Danier J, Rychlik M, Emami K, Gatehouse A, Shu Q, Engel KH, Altosaar I, Knudsen I. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) in Wistar rats. Food Chem Toxicol. 2007 Mar;45(3):339-49.
  68. Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms[EFSA](Question No EFSA-Q-2008-077) Adopted on 29 October 2008, SCIENTIFIC OPINION Request from the European Commission related to the safeguard clause invoked by France on maize MON810 according to Article 23 of Directive 2001/18/EC and the emergency measure according to Article 34 of Regulation No 1829/2003/EC1. The EFSA Journal (2008) 850, 1-45
  69. Sten E, Skov PS, Andersen SB, Torp AM, Olesen A, Bindslev-Jensen U, Poulsen LK, Bindslev-Jensen C. 2004. A comparative study of the allergenic potency of wild-type and glyphosate-tolerant gene-modified soybean cultivars. APMIS. 2004 Jan;112(1):21-8. This study is part of the projects ‘‘BioRisk’’, supported by the Danish Medical Research council, and ‘‘EpiPat’’, supported by the Danish Ministry of Food.
  70. Takahashi, H. Hotta, Y. Hayashi, M. Kawai-Yamada, M. Komatsu, S. Uchimiya, H. 2005. High throughput metabolome and proteome analysis of transgenic rice plants (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Biotechnol 22, 47–50.
  71. Taylor, J., King, R. D., Altmann, T. & Fiehn, O.(2002) Application of metabolomics to plant genotype discrimination using statistics and machine learning. Bioinformatics 18, S241-S248 (2002). UK Food Safety Authority Under G02006: Metabolome technology for the profiling of GM and conventionally bred plant materials
  72. Tony MA, Butschke A, Broll H, Grohmann L, Zagon J, Halle I, Dänicke S, Schauzu M, Hafez HM, Flachowsky G. Safety assessment of Bt 176 maize in broiler nutrition: degradation of maize-DNA and its metabolic fate. Arch Tierernahr. 2003 Aug;57(4):235-52.
  73. Venneria E, Simone Fanasca, Giovanni Monastra, Enrico Finotti, Roberto Ambra, Elena Azzini, Alessandra Durazzo, Maria Stella Foddai, and Giuseppe Maiani (2008) Assessment of the Nutritional Values of Genetically Modified Wheat, Corn, and Tomato Crops J. Agric. Food Chem.
  74. Wakasa K, Hasegawa H, Nemoto H, Matsuda F, Miyazawa H, Tozawa Y, Morino K, Komatsu A, Yamada T, Terakawa T, Miyagawa H.2006. High-level tryptophan accumulation in seeds of transgenic rice and its limited effects on agronomic traits and seed metabolite profile.J Exp Bot. 2006;57(12):3069-78.
  75. Weekes, Rebecca, Theodore Allnutt, Caroline Boffey, Sarah Morgan, Mark Bilton, Roger Daniels and Christine Henry (2008) A study of crop-to-crop gene flow using farm scale sites of fodder maize ( Zea mays L.) in the UK Transgenic Res (2007) 16: 203–211. Funded by Defra (project EPG 1/5/138). Bayer CropScience provided the positive control T25 maize seed.
  76. Windels P, Taverniers I, Depicker A, Van Bockstaele E, De Loose M (2001) Characterisation of the Roundup Ready soybean insert Eur Food Res Technol 213:107–112.
  77. Zhang, Jun, Lin Cai, Jiaqin Cheng, Huizhu Mao, Xiaoping Fan, Zhaohong Meng, Ka Man Chan, Huijun Zhang, Jianfei Qi, Lianghui Ji and Yan Hong (2008) Transgene integration and organization in Cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.) genome Transgenic Research 17 (2) 293-306. This project was supported by an internal research grant of Temasek Life Sciences Laboratory, Singapore. Although cotton is a fibre crop it is also a vegetable oil crop.
  78. Zhu Y, Li D, Wang F, Yin J, Jin H (2004) Nutritional assessment and fate of DNA of soybean meal from Roundup Ready or conventional soybeans using rats.
  79. Zolla L, Rinalducci S, Antonioli P, Righetti PG.(2008) Proteomics as a complementary tool for identifying unintended side effects occurring in transgenic maize seeds as a result of genetic modifications. J Proteome Res. 2008 May;7(5):1850-61.
  80. Zywicki Britta , Gareth Catchpole, John Draper, and Oliver Fiehn. 2004. Comparison of rapid LC-ESI-MS/MS methods for determination of glycoalkaloids in transgenic field grown potatoes. Analytical Biochemistry. UK Food Safety Authority Under G02006: Metabolome technology for the profiling of GM and conventionally bred plant materials.
  81. Ute Vogler, Anja S. Rott, Cesare Gessler & Silvia Dorn. How transgenic and classically bred apple genotypes affect non-target organisms on higher trophic levels. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata Volume 134 Issue 2, Pages 114 – 121
  82. Coll A, Nadal A, Collado R, Capellades G, Kubista M, Messeguer J, Pla M. Natural variation explains most transcriptomic changes among maize plants of MON810 and comparable non-GM varieties subjected to two N-fertilization farming practices. Plant Mol Biol. 2010 Jun;73(3):349-62. Epub 2010 Mar 27.
  83. Wiedemann S, Gürtler P, Albrecht C. 2007. Effect of feeding cows genetically modified maize on the bacterial community in the bovine rumen. Applied and environmental microbiology 73(24):8012-7.
  84. Transgene × Environment Interactions in Genetically Modified Wheat
  85. Are GM and conventionally bred cereals really different?
  86. Borejsza-Wysocka et al., Stable expression and phenotypic impact of attacin E transgene in orchard grown apple trees over a 12 year period BMC Biotechnology 2010, 10:41
  87. Coll A, Nadal A, Collado R, Capellades G, Messeguer J, Mele E, Palaudelmas M, Pla M (2009) Gene expression profiles of MON810 and comparable non-GM maize varieties cultured in the field are more similar than are those of conventional lines. Transgenic Res 18:801–808
  88. Andreas Lindfeld, Corsin Lang, Eva Knop, Wolfgang Nentwig, Hard to digest or a piece of cake? Does GM wheat affect survival and reproduction of Enchytraeus albidus (Annelida: Enchytraeidae)?, Applied Soil Ecology, Volume 47, Issue 1, January 2011, Pages 51-58, ISSN 0929-1393, DOI: 10.1016/j.apsoil.2010.10.012.
  89. S. von Burg, F. J. F. van Veen, F. Alvarez-Alfageme, J. Romeis. Aphid-parasitoid community structure on genetically modified wheat. Biology Letters, 2011; DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2010.1147
  90. Kusano M, Redestig H, Hirai T, Oikawa A, Matsuda F, Fukushima A, Arita M, Watanabe S, Yano M, Hiwasa-Tanase K, Ezura H, Saito K. Covering chemical diversity of genetically-modified tomatoes using
    metabolomics for objective substantial equivalence assessment. PLoS One. 2011 Feb 16;6(2):e16989.
  91. Jose L. Domingo, Jordi Gine Bordonaba, A literature review on the safety assessment of genetically modified plants, Environment International, Volume 37, Issue 4, May 2011, Pages 734-742, ISSN 0160-4120, DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2011.01.003. Review covers feeding studies from 2007-2010 (but no 2010 papers included).
  92. Yuan Y, Xu W, Luo Y, Liu H, Lu J, Su C, Huang K. Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on faecal microflora of rats during 90 day supplementation. J Sci Food Agric. 2011 Apr 26. doi: 10.1002/jsfa.4421. [Epub ahead of print]
  93. Stuart J. Smyth, Michael Gusta, Kenneth Belcher, Peter W.B. Phillips and David Castle. Environmental impacts from herbicide tolerant canola production in Western Canada. Agricultural Systems, Volume 104, Issue 5, June 2011, Pages 403-410
  94. Duan JJ, Marvier M, Huesing J, Dively G, Huang ZY, 2008 A Meta-Analysis of Effects of Bt Crops on Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae). PLoS ONE 3(1): e1415. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001415
  95. Sishuo Cao, Wentao Xu, YunBo Luo, Xiaoyun He, Yanfang Yuan, Wenjun Ran, Lixing Lianga and Kunlun Huang. Metabonomics study of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice (T2A-1) meal in a 90-day dietary toxicity study in rats. Mol. BioSyst., 2011, DOI: 10.1039/C1MB05076A (May 19, 2011)
  96. Helga Gruber, Vijay Paul, Patrick Guertler, Hubert Spiekers, Ales Tichopad, Heinrich H. D. Meyer, and Martin Muller. Fate of Cry1Ab Protein in Agricultural Systems under Slurry Management of Cows Fed Genetically Modified Maize (Zea mays L.) MON810: A Quantitative Assessment. J. Agric. Food Chem., Article ASAP DOI: 10.1021/jf200854n Publication Date (Web): May 23, 2011
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